What is hepatitis B?
Hepatitis B (Hep B) is an infection of the liver, caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV).
What are the symptoms of hep B?
- Loss of appetite
- Stomach pain
- Joint pain
- Yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes (jaundice)
Many people do not show any symptoms, but can still spread the germs to others without knowing it. Infants and young children usually do not show any symptoms. Symptoms can take about 2 to 6 months after the germs enter your body to show. By this time, the virus may have already caused damage to your liver. A small number of people can die after being infected. This is why it is important to take steps to prevent getting hep B and get tested if you may have been exposed.
How does hep B spread?
Hep B spreads easily through contact of your blood or mucous membranes with the blood or body fluids (such as saliva, semen, and vaginal fluid) of someone with hep B infection. Common ways to spread the infection include:
- Having unprotected oral, vaginal, and/or anal sex with an infected partner.
- From mother to baby during childbirth.
- Sharing used needles or other drug equipment for injecting or inhaling drugs.
- Using contaminated medical, surgical, or dental equipment, such as insulin pens or tattoo needles.
- Being exposed by getting pricked by a contaminated needle or sharp at a workplace.
- Sharing personal items, such as toothbrushes or razors.
Until your health care provider tells you that you have cleared the germs from your body, you can spread it to others. People living or travelling to countries where it is common are at a higher risk of getting hep B.
What are complications of hep B?
Most adults will recover within 6 months (known as acute hep B infection). However, some will develop chronic infection, where the virus remains in their body for life (known as hep B carriers). The younger a person is, the more likely they are to be chronically infected. People who have chronic hep B can develop serious liver problems, such as liver scarring (cirrhosis) and cancer.
How do I get tested for hep B?
A simple blood test is collected by a health care provider to test for hep B. If it is positive for hep B infection, you will need additional blood tests to see if you have recovered from the infection.
How is hep B treated?
- If you have symptoms, see a health care provider as soon as possible. Tell your health care provider about any way you may have been exposed to the germ.
- Tell your health care provider if you are pregnant or think you may be pregnant.
- Most people will clear hep B germs without needing treatment (acute hep B infection).
- Chronic hep B can be treated with medication to help prevent the infection from getting worse and reduce the risk of serious liver problems. There is no cure at this time.
- Blood tests may need to be done during treatment to make sure the medication is working.
What do I do if I have hep B?
Encourage all those who may have been exposed to your blood or bodily fluids (e.g., sexual partners, people you live with) to get a test for hepatitis and to get their hep B immunizations if the tests are negative. The hep B vaccine is free for these contacts. The Health Unit can help you notify your partners, while keeping your identity confidential.
If you have not yet recovered from acute hep B or have chronic hep B, make sure to:
- Not have sex until sexual partners have been tested and/or immunized. Practice safer sex and use barrier protection, such as condoms.
- Tell your doctor, dentist and other health care providers about the infection, so they can take precautions.
- Not share personal items that may contain blood, such as toothbrushes, razors, or nail clippers.
- Not donate blood, semen, or tissues.
- Not share drug equipment, such as needles or pipes, if you use drugs. Visit a local needle syringe program to get new needles, syringes, and other equipment.
- Cover all cuts and sores. Avoid preparing food and swimming in public pools, if bleeding.
- Clean up blood spills with diluted household bleach (9 parts water to 1 part bleach). Leave the bleach solution on the surface for 10 minutes before wiping it away. If others are cleaning up blood spills, make sure they wear protective gloves and wash their hands well after removing the gloves.
- Get tested for other sexually transmitted and bloodborne infections (STBBIs), such as HIV and hepatitis C. Your health care provider may advise you to get the hepatitis A vaccine.
- Take care of yourself by eating a balanced diet, getting enough rest and exercise, and following up with your health care provider as needed. Avoid drinking alcohol to protect your liver.
How do I prevent hep B?
The best way to prevent hep B is to make sure you and your child are up-to-date with all of your vaccinations. The two- to three-dose hep B vaccine series are free, as part of the Ontario’s publicly funded program. Vaccines help protect you from serious illness.
Other ways to prevent infection include:
- Practicing safer sex, such as:
- Abstinence (not taking part in any types of sex),
- Mutual monogamy (both partners only have sex with each other and have been tested for STBBIs, and
- Using latex and polyurethane male and female condoms and dental dams. Condoms are available for free at the Health Unit.
- Not sharing sex toys or thoroughly washing them with disinfectants between use
- Getting tested for STBBIs, if you had unprotected sex and/or unsure if you or your partners have a STBBI.
- Not sharing personal items or drug equipment.
For more information
contact the Health Unit or speak to your health care provider.
- Government of Canada - Hepatitis B – Get the Facts:
- Ontario Ministry of Health/Ministry of Long-Term Care – Hepatitis B
- SexualHealthOntario (also has live online chat and Sexual Health Infoline):
- Government of Canada. (2014). Primary care management of hepatitis B – Quick reference (HBV-QR). Retrieved from https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/reports-publications/primary-care-management-hepatitis-b-quick-reference.html#sec9.
- Heymann, D.L. (Ed.). (2015). Control of communicable diseases manual (20th ed.). Washington, DC: American Public Health Association.
- Ontario. Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care. (2019). Infectious diseases protocol, Appendix A: Disease-specific chapters, Chapter: Hepatitis B. Toronto, ON: Queen’s Printer for Ontario.