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The following report presents diabetes statistics for Windsor-Essex County. Diabetes includes both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Health Canada reports that nine out of ten people with diabetes has type 2.1 

Table 1: Percentage of Individuals Reporting Diabetes by Year, Ages 12 and Older
  2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Percent (%) 6.9 7.7 E 6.6 7.8 E 8.6 E 10.6 E
95% CI 5.0-9.5 5.5-10.6 4.8-9.0 5.4-10.9 5.7-12.8 7.4-15.1

E Interpret with caution due to high sampling variability.

There is no significant difference in diabetes rates from 2007 to 2012. 

Table 2: Percentage of Individuals Reporting Diabetes by Age and Sex, 2007-2012
  Male
Percent (95% CI)
Female
Percent (95% CI)
Total
Both Sexes
Age 12 to 19 NR NR NR
Age 20 to 44 NR 3.1 E (1.8-5.4) 2.4 E (1.6-3.8)
Age 45 to 64 16.2 E (11.3-22.6) 8.2 (5.9-11.2) 12.2 (9.2-15.9)
Age 65 and over 24.9 (18.9-32.0) 16.1 (12.1-21.1) 20.1 (16.6-24.1)
Total All Ages 9.5 (7.7-11.6) 6.6 (5.4-8.0) 8.0 (7.0-9.3)

E Interpret with caution due to high sampling variability.
NR = not reportable due to high sampling variability.

When the rate of diabetes for males and females of all ages is examined there is no significant difference between men and women found. When rates by age are examined without taking sex into account there are significant increases in diabetes rates as age groupings increase. 

When differences by age and sex are examined, males aged 45 to 64 are significantly more likely to have diabetes in comparison to women in the same age range. For females, significant differences in rates are seen by age, with rates increasing significantly for each age group. No differences based on age group are found for men. 

Table 3: Percentage of Individuals Reporting Diabetes by Income Quintile, Ages 12 and Older, 2007-2012
  Quintile 1
Lowest Income
Quintile 2 Quintile 3 Quintile 4 Quintile 5
Highest Income
Percent (%) 9.0 9.4 8.6 8.1 E 5.1 E
95% CI 6.8-11.8 7.0-12.6 6.3-11.8 5.4-11.9 3.4-7.5

E Interpret with caution due to high sampling variability.

There is no significant difference in diabetes rates based on income. When results were analyzed by income for just those 20 to 64, again no differences were found.

Table 4: Percentage of Individuals Reporting Diabetes by Education Level, Ages 12 and Older, 2007-2012
  Less Than
Secondary School
Secondary School
Graduate
Some Post-
Secondary
Post-Secondary
Graduate
Percent (%) 10.7 7.4 E NR 8.2
95% CI 8.6-13.4 5.3-10.3 NR 6.7-10.0

E Interpret with caution due to high variability.
NR = not reportable due to high sampling variability.

There is no difference in diabetes rates based on education level.

Table 5: Percentage of Individuals Reporting Diabetes by Minority Status, Ages 12 and Older, 2007-2012
  White Minority
Percent (%) 7.3 11.1 E
95% CI 6.3-8.4 7.8-15.5

E Interpret with caution due to high variability. 

There is no difference in diabetes rates based on minority status.

Table 6: Percentage of Individuals Reporting Diabetes by Immigration Status, Ages 12 and Older, 2007-2012
  Born in Canada Immigrant
Percent (%) 6.4 13.4
95% CI 5.4-7.5 10.4-17.2

There is a significant difference in diabetes status based on whether someone immigrated to Canada or was born in Canada. Individuals who immigrated have significantly higher rates of diabetes.

Table 7: Percentage of Diabetic Individuals on Insulin or Taking Pills to Control Blood Sugar, Ages 12 and Over, 2007-2012
  On Insulin Taking Pills
Percent (%) 24.5 77.5
95% CI 18.2-32.1 70.1-83.4

Note: Separate questions inquired about insulin or pill use and thus the percentage of individuals taking insulin or pills may sum to greater than 100.

As the results here indicate, 24.5% of diabetics reported they take insulin for diabetes and 77.5% of diabetics report they use pills to control their blood sugar. Individuals with type 1 diabetes must take insulin, individuals with type 2 diabetes may take pills and/or insulin.2 

Data Notes

  1. Data Source: Canadian Community Health Survey, [2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012], Share File, Ontario Ministry of Health and Long Term Care.
  2. The Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) collects data through participant self-report. Data collected through self-report can be biased due to inaccurate memory or because of social desirability. Social desirability happens when individuals answer questions in a manner that they think will be viewed favourably, and is more likely to occur when individuals are answering sensitive questions.
  3. Values are for those aged 12 and over.
  4. Not Stated and Don’t Know responses were excluded from analysis.
  5. 95% CI = 95% confidence interval. The 95% confidence interval provides a range within which we are 95% confident that the true population proportion (%) falls. If a stated result percentage is 18% with a 95% CI of 15.0-21.0%, we can be 95% confident that the true percentage lies within the range of 15.0% to 21.0%. The wider the confidence interval, the more variability there is, and the less precise the estimate.
  6. Significant differences were determined based on non-overlapping confidence intervals.
  7. Understanding income quintiles used in this report: The Canadian Community Health Survey contains a variable that groups Windsor-Essex survey respondents into one of 10 income deciles. Each decile contains 10% of the sample population. So that the lowest or first decile contains the 10% of the population that has the lowest household income, and the highest or 10th decile contains the 10% of the sample population that has the highest household income. The calculation takes into account reported household income, low-income cut-off values, household size, and community size. For the purposes of this report, deciles were used to create quintiles for ease of analysis and interpretation (quintiles are fifths, and so each quintile contains 20% of the sample population). The lowest two deciles were combined to make the lowest quintile, the third and fourth deciles were combined to create the second lowest quintile, and so forth, with the two highest income deciles being combined to make the highest income quintile.
  8. A white ethnic background was defined as an individual who reported that their ethnicity was white. All other ethnicities were coded as minority.
  9. Immigrant was defined as someone who had ever immigrated to Canada.
  10. The geographical area of Windsor-Essex County represents the population of the entire county of Essex and includes all municipalities within the county.
  11. Age standardized statistics available upon request.

References

  1. Health Canada (2012). Health Concerns: Diabetes. Retrieved from: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hc-ps/dc-ma/diabete-eng.php
  2. Health Canada (2012). Healthy Living: Type 2 Diabetes and Weight Gain from Insulin. Retrieved from: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hl-vs/iyh-vsv/med/insul-gain-eng.php