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The percentage of individuals in Windsor-Essex who report they are daily or occasional smokers is presented below. Data is analyzed by year for those aged 12 and above, and for those aged 19 and above. Data is also analyzed to determine if age and sex impact rates, as well as whether various social variables impact rates.

Table 1: Percentage of Individuals Aged 12 and Above Who Smoke by Year
  2007
% (95% CI)
2008
% (95% CI)
2009
% (95% CI)
2010
% (95% CI)
2011
% (95% CI)
2012
% (95% CI)
Daily 16.2
(13.0-20.0)
13.6
(10.4-17.6)
14.6
(11.4-18.5)
21.9
(17.0-27.7)
9.9
(6.8-14.3)
15.5
(11.3-20.9)
Occasional 3.1 E
(1.8-5.4)
5.9 E
(3.9-8.9)
4.6 E
(2.9-7.3)
3.3 E
(2.0-5.5)
3.4 E
(2.2-5.2)
5.4 E
(3.3-8.9)
Daily and Occasional 19.4
(15.8-23.4)
19.6
(15.8-24.0)
19.2
(15.5-23.5)
25.2
(20.1-31.2)
13.3
(9.8-17.8)
20.9
(16.0-26.9)

E Interpret with caution due to high sampling variability. 

From 2007 to 2010 there was no significant change in daily or occasional smoking in Windsor-Essex. 2011 rates were significantly different from 2010, although the 2011 rates are not different from the 2012 rates. Rates from 2012 are also not significantly different from any other years.

Table 2: Percentage of Adults Aged 19 and Above Who Smoke by Year
  2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Daily 17.9
(14.3-22.1)
15.1
(11.5-19.6)
16.1
(12.6-20.4)
23.6
(18.5-29.6)
11.0 E
(7.5-15.7)
17.3
(12.6-23.3)
Occasional 3.5 E
(2.0-6.1)
6.6 E
(4.4-9.9)
4.9 E
(3.0-8.0)
3.5 E
(2.1-6.0)
3.8 E
(2.4-5.8)
5.9 E
(3.5-9.7)
Daily and Occasional 21.4
(17.5-25.9)
21.8
(17.5-26.7)
21.0
(16.9-25.8)
27.2 
(21.8-33.3)
14.7
(10.8-19.7)
23.2
(17.6-29.8)

E Interpret with caution due to high sampling variability. 

When yearly statistics are examined for just those aged 19 and above a similar yearly trend is seen. There is no significant difference in rates from 2007 to 2010. 2011 rates were found to be significantly lower than 2010. Rates in 2012 are not significantly different from any other years.

Table 3: Percentage of Individuals Who Smoke by Age and Sex, 2007-2010 and 2012
  Male
Percent (95% CI)
Female
Percent (95% CI)
Both Sexes
Percent (95% CI)
Age 12 to 19
Daily
Occasionally
Combination
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
5.5 E (3.0-9.7)
Age 20 to 44
Daily
Occasionally
Combination
20.5 (16.4-25.5)
10.7 E (7.7-14.9)
31.3 (26.3-36.7)
18.1 (14.7-22.0)
6.1 E (3.9-9.2)
24.1 (19.9-29.0)
19.3 (16.5-22.5)
8.4 (6.5-10.9)
27.7 (24.2-31.5)
Age 45 to 64
Daily
Occasionally
Combined
24.8 (19.1-31.4)
2.3 E (1.2-4.3)
27.0 (21.1-33.8)
16.2 (11.6-22.2)
NR
18.8 (14.0-24.7)
20.5 (16.9-24.6)
2.4 E (1.5-3.9)
22.9 (19.2-27.1)
Age 65 and Over
Daily
Occasionally
Combined
11.9 E (7.6-17.9)
NR
12.4 E (8.1-18.5)
8.7 E (5.9-12.6)
NR
10.0 E (6.9-14.3)
10.09 (7.9-12.9)
NR
11.1 (8.8-13.9)
All Ages
Daily
Occasionally
Combined
18.6 (15.8-21.8)
5.4 (4.1-7.2)
24.0 (21.1-27.3)
14.2 (12.0-16.6)
3.6 E (2.5-5.0)
17.7 (15.3-20.5)
16.4 (14.6-18.3)
4.5 (3.6-5.6)
20.9 (18.8-23.0)

E Interpret with caution due to high sampling variability.
NR = Not reportable due to high sampling variability.
Combination = Daily and occasional smokers. 

When differences in daily and occasional smoking rates are examined between males and females without taking age into account, there is a significant difference in the percentage of men and women who smoke, with more men reporting that they are smokers in comparison to women. When age is examined without taking sex into account a significant difference in smoking rates is seen between those who are between age 20 and 64 and those over age 65, with significantly fewer individuals over the age of 65 reporting that they are smokers.

Table 4: Percentage of Individuals Aged 12 and Above Who Smoke by Income Quintile, 2007-2010 and 2012
  Quintile 1
Lowest Income
% (95% CI)
Quintile 2
% (95% CI)
Quintile 3
% (95% CI)
Quintile 4
% (95% CI)
Quintile 5
% 95% CI)
Daily 27.2
(22.0-33.1)
17.3
(13.3-22.2)
13.3
(9.6-18.1)
12.6
(9.3-16.9)
11.8
(8.9-15.5)
Occasionally 5.4 E
(3.2-9.0)
4.0 E
(2.3-6.7)
3.8 E
(2.4-6.1)
3.6 E
(2.2-6.0)
5.7 E
(3.7-8.7)
Daily and Occasionally 32.6
(26.8-38.9)
21.3
(17.1-26.2)
17.1
(13.1-22.2)
16.2
(12.6-20.6)
17.5
(14.0-21.7)

E Interpret with caution due to high sampling variability.

The percentage of daily or occasional smokers is influenced by income, with those in the lowest income quintile reporting significantly higher smoking rates in comparison to all other income quintiles. No other significant differences between quintiles are observed. 

Table 5: Percentage of Individuals Aged 20 to 64 Who Smoke by Income Quintile, 2007-2010 and 2012
  Quintile 1 Quintile 2 Quintile 3 Quintile 4 Quintile 5
Daily 34.5
(27.1-42.7)
24.0
(18.2-30.9)
17.9 E
(12.7-24.7)
13.8 E
(9.9-19.0)
13.7
(10.2-18.1)
Occasionally 8.5 E
(4.8-14.4)
5.2 E
(2.8-9.4)
5.3 E
(3.3-8.5)
3.8 E
(2.1-6.7)
6.7 E
(4.4-10.2)
Daily and Occasionally 43.0
(34.8-51.5)
29.2
(23.1-36.2)
23.2
(17.5-30.1)
17.6
(13.4-22.9)
20.4
(16.2-25.4)

E Interpret with caution due to high sampling variability.

When smoking rates are compared by income for just those aged 20 to 64 a similar pattern of results as reported in Table 4 are found. Significantly more individuals aged 20 to 64 in the lowest income quintile report smoking in comparison to those in quintiles three, four and five. Those in quintile two are also significantly more likely to smoke than those in the fourth income quintile.

Table 6: Percentage of Individuals Aged 12 and Above Who Smoke by Education Level, 2007-2010 and 2012
  Less Than
Secondary School
% (95% CI)
Secondary
School Graduate
% (95% CI)
Some
Post-Secondary
% (95% CI)
Post-Secondary
Graduate
% (95% CI)
Daily 17.8
(13.7-22.7)
24.2
(18.9-30.5)
16.4 E
(11.5-22.8)
12.8
(10.8-15.1)
Occasionally 3.5 E
(1.9-6.2)
2.7 E
(1.5-4.8)
7.6 E
(4.2-13.6)
5.1
(3.8-6.7)
Daily and Occasionally 21.3
(17.2-26.0)
26.9
(21.3-33.3)
24.0
(17.4-32.1)
17.9
(15.5-20.6)

E Interpret with caution due to high sampling variability.

When education is examined, post-secondary graduates are significantly less likely than those who are a secondary school graduates to be occasional or daily smokers. When rates between these groups are examined more closely the difference is found to be between the proportion of daily smokers in the two educational groups. These are the only two educational groups that have significantly different rates. 

Table 7: Percentage of Individuals Aged 12 and Above Who Smoke by Minority Status, 2007-2010 and 2012
  White
% (95% CI)
Minority
% (95% CI)
Daily 17.3
(15.3-19.5)
8.6 E
(5.4-13.4)
Occasionally 4.5
(3.6-5.6)
NR
Daily and Occasionally 21.8
(19.5-24.2)
12.4 E
(8.5-17.6)

E Interpret with caution due to high sampling variability.
NR = Not reportable due to high sampling variability. 

The percentage of individuals who report daily or occasional smoking is impacted by minority status, with those with a white ethnic background being significantly more likely to smoke. 

Table 8: Percentage of Individuals Aged 12 and Above Who Smoke by Immigration Status, 2007-2010 and 2012
  Born in Canada
% (95% CI)
Immigrant
% (95% CI)
Daily 17.5
(15.4-19.7)
13.3 E
(9.5-18.3)
Occasionally 4.8
(3.8-6.1)
3.4 E
(2.1-5.5)
Daily and Occasionally 22.3
(19.9-24.8)
16.7
(12.7-21.8)

E Interpret with caution due to high sampling variability.

There is no significant difference in the percentage of individuals who smoke based on whether someone was born in Canada or whether they immigrated to Canada. 

Data Notes

1. Data Source: Canadian Community Health Survey, [2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012], Share File, Ontario Ministry of Health and Long Term Care.

2. Due to the significant difference between smoking rates in 2011 and 2010, data for 2011 was removed from analyses investigating the relationship between age, sex, and various social variables and smoking status.  This was done to ensure that there were no significant differences in the yearly rates for years that were combined for these analyses. 

3. The Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) collects data through participant self-report. Data collected through self-report can be biased due to inaccurate memory or because of social desirability. Social desirability happens when individuals answer questions in a manner that they think will be viewed favourably, and is more likely to occur when individuals are answering sensitive questions. 

4. Not Stated and Don’t Know responses were excluded from analysis. 

5.  95% CI = 95% confidence interval. The 95% confidence interval provides a range within which we are 95% confident that the true population proportion (%) falls. If a stated result percentage is 18% with a 95% CI of 15.0-21.0%, we can be 95% confident that the true percentage lies within the range of 15.0% to 21.0%. The wider the confidence interval, the more variability there is, and the less precise the estimate.

6.  Significant differences were determined based on non-overlapping confidence intervals.

7. Understanding income quintiles used in this report: The Canadian Community Health Survey contains a variable that groups Windsor-Essex survey respondents into one of 10 income deciles. Each decile contains 10% of the sample population. So that the lowest or first decile contains the 10% of the population that has the lowest household income, and the highest or 10th decile contains the 10% of the sample population that has the highest household income. The calculation takes into account reported household income, low-income cut-off values, household size, and community size. For the purposes of this report, deciles were used to create quintiles for ease of analysis and interpretation (quintiles are fifths, and so each quintile contains 20% of the sample population). The lowest two deciles were combined to make the lowest quintile, the third and fourth deciles were combined to create the second lowest quintile, and so forth, with the two highest income deciles being combined to make the highest income quintile. 

8. A white ethnic background was defined as an individual who reported that their ethnicity was white. All other ethnicities were coded as minority. 

9. Immigrant was defined as someone who had ever immigrated to Canada. 

10. The geographical area of Windsor-Essex County represents the population of the entire county of Essex and includes all municipalities within the county.

11. Age standardized statistics available upon request.